The Noachide Laws and the Great Religious Deception

by Nathan Barnard

The world is witnessing a tremendous religious deception, one that is gathering momentum. It is a deception that is even deceiving many believers, as ministers and Bible teachers embrace and espouse its demonic theology and concepts. What is startling is the trend of Christian Pastors and teachers abandoning the tenets of the Christian faith and renouncing Yeshua/Jesus as the Messiah to become leaders within the Noachide religion. Such moves have both eternal and physical dire consequences.

I encourage the study of the biblical roots of our faith, as Christian believers seek to strip away the traditions of men passed down,[1] traditions which are in part rooted within pagan practices. That is not to say that those who practice them do so observing the pagan roots. Instead, they observe the traditions in worship to the God of the Bible. In the quest for truth, many have looked to Judaism and all things Jewish to draw understanding of scripture. While this in part offers many benefits, they have in their ignorance embraced Pharisaic Judaic traditions. Instead, traditions Messiah Yeshua (Jesus) and the disciples stood in opposition to.[2] Messiah in scripture clearly warned of the Leaven of the Pharisees, that it would not entice the people.[3]

Now, let me stop and expound upon this. While there is much wealth and depth of knowledge in both Christian and Jewish traditions, caution needs to be applied. As we audit our theology in a quest to worship God in spirit and in truth, through applying wisdom. We apply wisdom, so that we do not jettison aspects of the Christian tradition which are good and sound biblically, to embrace unsound, but perceived biblical traditions of the Rabbis. While there may be some wisdom in what the Rabbis teach, there are also great dangers and deceit. What is transpiring within the Body of Messiah today, is that many believers are ditching much, or at times everything, the church has taught, to embrace much or everything the Rabbis teach. The move to worship everything Jewish, especially within parts of the evangelical church, is seeing many embrace Noachidism[4] and leaving the Christian tradition. Christians who defend Israel are not holding her, Israel, to account for the unbiblical activities committed as the people of God, as they adopt unbiblical practices that are rooted in Kabbalistic Judaism rather than scripture. [5]

In my academic studies, I have personally read much of the Talmud along with a variety of rabbinical writings.[6] Nonetheless, I caution people to stay clear of studying the Kabbalistic writings of the sages. I do, however, acknowledge that within these writings there are some Biblical truths, but these truths have been merged with Babylonian mystic occultism. My counsel is for those who seek to understand these teachings, do so, by gleaning from respected teachers who understand the reality/intricacies of such writings and can guide them in their personal study. However, I admonish disciples who seek to know the truth of their theology, to rely primarily on the word of God and the ministry of the Holy Spirit.

One of the key concepts within Rabbinic Judaism is the method of instructions: that of the five layers of studying scripture or sacred texts.[7] While there are degrees regarding how this is applied within Kabbalah, Christians do not need to consider or apply them. A simple four-layer method of studying scripture which I apply enables me to audit my theology thus:

  1. Read the text and understand it in relation to how it reads.
  2. Read it and see what it is inferring, what can be gleaned from looking at the words and the biblical meaning ascribed to them. This can be done by using a Strong’s concordance.[8]
  3. What it is the text says in relation to other passages of the Bible. This is the stage in which you study the text against other passages to see if it stands true. If it doesn’t, then it is usually our understanding of the texts that are in error, for instance, the concept of the New Covenant — yes, we know that Messiah inaugurated this covenant through His death and resurrection. However, it has yet to be fully implemented. Many Christians are ignorant of this fact and argue that it has. This is because people often read their theology into the text rather than merely believing what they read, as a child would. Thus, it is in this stage that we study the text while using other scriptures as witnesses to see what is being revealed and acknowledging that scripture cannot contradict itself.
  4. As we apply the above steps, the deeper meanings of scripture are thus revealed. For scripture informs us that God has hidden the deeper meanings within His word for those who earnestly search them to find. [9]

All one needs to do is to meditate on scripture, study and search it out as they wait on the LORD and allow the Holy Spirit to guide and lead them, because the Holy Spirit is given to lead the Body of Messiah into all truth. The reality is that much of what is transpiring in the church is contrary to the word of God and deceiving many. This now poses a question: ‘what spirit is guiding and leading these congregations?’

‘But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come’ (NIV John 16:3).

Today many evangelical churches, along with many Messianic/Hebraic Roots assemblies, we are witnessing a great deception birthed through the veneration of Israel, the Jewish people and rabbinical knowledge. This quest is causing many to embrace the Noachide Laws, unaware that they are being deceived. At its worst, it is causing many to denounce Yeshua (Jesus) and their faith in God to embrace Rabbinic Kabbalistic Judaism. What most do not understand is that at the heart of the Noachide deception is the spirit of antichrist. Furthermore, it is my belief that the Noachide delusion will be a key attribute if not the spirituality of the antichrist system — a system that will through a convergence of transhumanist theology, technology and Kabbalistic Noachide theology establish both the spiritual and physical interconnected antichrist system of the Beast. However, while it is not my aim to expand on this concept within this article, as I seek to expose the antichrist spirit within the Noachide theology, I will show how this merge between Kabbalistic spirituality and transhumanism could transpire.  Please note that I am not writing this article to speak against the Jewish people, but rather to highlight the deception that is spreading within the Body of Messiah.

Noachide commandments and its history

Rabbinical Kabbalistic Rabbis have for centuries been moving towards the establishment of a global world religion built upon the Noachide laws of Kabbalah,[10] an endeavour that has been greatly propagated and worked towards since the late 19th Century by influential Rabbis. This has infiltrated and been incorporated within Roman Catholic theology through Nostra Aetate, Vatican II.[11]

Furthermore, the Noachide laws have been passed by public law within the United States through an annual declaration on what is referred to as Education Day praising and acknowledging the Noachide laws.[12] This is evident within an excerpt from the 1991 declaration, which states:

To designate March 26, 1991, as `Education Day, USA’.

Whereas Congress recognizes the historical tradition of ethical values and principles which are the basis of civilized society and upon which our great Nation was founded;

Whereas these ethical values and principles have been the bedrock of society from the dawn of civilization, when they were known as the Seven Noachide Laws;

Whereas without these ethical values and principles the edifice of civilization stands in serious peril of returning to chaos.[13]

We see here how Congress acknowledges the Noachide Laws, stating that these are the foundational bedrock of society from times past. This statement is Biblically incorrect, as it is the Ten Commandments and the word of God which have been foundations of society. The Ten Commandments have been slowly removed from society, being replaced with a counterfeit set of rabbinic Kabbalistic laws, laws which while seeming good, call at their extremities for the beheading of those who do not adhere to them.[14] Furthermore, while this may seem farfetched or impracticable to implement, one needs to ask, ‘why has Alabama made abortions illegal?’ as the report states, ‘Alabama bans abortion with strictest legislation in US.’[15] However, this is not the only state to recently pass such laws forbidding abortion, as six states have previously done so. To date, 61 bills have been introduced across the country. Alabama’s bill is the most radical.[16]

While I agree with this law being passed, we must ask what the driving force is? Could it be part of the Noachide initiation? For under these laws, murder, as it is within the Ten Commandments, is prohibited. [17]

Furthermore, under the Noachide laws, it is forbidden to blaspheme the name of God. Rabbis also interpret this as not speaking against, ‘blaspheme,’ what the Rabbis teach, Judaism, Israel or the Jewish people. [18] Thus, could this be why President Trump is seeking to implement strict anti-Semitism law in America, as he is deeply entwined with the Chabad ultra-orthodox Jewish organisation,[19] a link which has seen the organisation bestow prestigious honours upon him.[20] Furthermore, Jared Kushner, who is the leading figure for the forthcoming peace plan in the Middle East, is a member of Chabad, a society in which he occupied a presidential position whilst at Harvard University.[21] Now, while I condemn any hate crime, people must be allowed to critique and discuss openly actions taken by governments, organisation and religions, without showing or enticing hate. Yet, while it may be just a coincident why these stances are being taken, this does not negate the reality that people need to be vigilant and wake from their slumber and naive lives. Such lives that are blighted by cognitive dissonance as they are unaware of what is transpiring globally, due to being engrained within the matrix of the One World Order through the interconnected and indoctrinated systems of our post-modern global society.

A glimpse into the ideology of the Noachides is found by examining the website of The Noachide Association of Great Britain.[22] On the main page of its website, it outlines some of its foundational beliefs.[23] It states that Judaism, unlike other religions, does not condemn people to Hell if they do not convert. Rather Judaism, offers two paths to Heaven – the ‘world to come’. For the Jewish person, this consists of observing the 613 commandments given to Moses for Israel at Mount Sinai. The other path is for the ‘Righteous Gentiles’ who seek to adhere to the seven Noachide laws given to Noah and his descendants as a covenant in Genesis 9. These laws were then repeated to Moses at Sinai.[24]

This concept of the two paths is a key principle within Rabbinic Judaism. However, the precept contradicts what the scriptures state on three issues.

Firstly, that the Noachide laws were given to Noah as recorded in Genesis 9.

The instructions/commandments given to Noah and his seed in Genesis 9 are as follows:

Genesis 9:1 to be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth.

Genesis 9:3 they are now permitted to eat meat along with the vegetation which they ate prior to the flood. Prior to this, man was not permitted to eat flesh.

Genesis 9:4 not permitted to consume the blood of an animal or eat any part of an animal which still has the life in it, that being the blood.

Genesis 9:6 Not permitted to shed blood.

What we notice in Genesis 9 is that God gave Noah four commandments or instructions: to multiply, not to consume blood, not to murder and that they could eat meat as well as vegetation. However, in contrast, the seven Noachide laws state.[25] 

1 Believe and trust in G-d – Do not worship idols

2 Respect and praise G-d – Do not blaspheme

3 Respect the sanctity of human life – Do not murder, assault or slander

4 Respect family values – Do not have illicit sexual relations

5 Respect the rights and property of others – Do not steal

6 Respect the rights of animals – Do not eat flesh from a live animal

7 Responsibility for society – Establish a system of Justice

We note that it is only commandments 3 and 6 which are similar to what God instructed Noah when He made a covenant with him and his seed, as recorded in Genesis 9. Furthermore, the only other place within ancient writings which outlines the laws given to Noah is recorded in the book of Jubilees, yet these too do not concur with the seven Noachide laws outlined and espoused by Rabbinical Judaism listed above. Thus, what is referred to as Noachide laws, given to Noah by God for his seed are in truth not grounded in scripture. Rather they are a rabbinic concept founded on Talmudic and Kabbalistic teachings and not scripture.[26]

Secondly, we notice that Genesis 9:9-10 clearly states that the commandments recorded in Genesis 9 are given to Noah and his seed after him. This is crucial, as Rabbinical Judaism infers that only ‘Gentiles’ are descendants of Noah and therefore required to observe the Noachide laws. The reality is that all of humanity are descendants of Noah, including the Jewish people. Genesis 11:10-26 clearly outlines that Abraham was a descendent of Shem, the Son of Noah, and thus, the children of Abraham are of the seed of Noah. However, Rabbinical Judaism argues that the Jewish people are the only people to have the divine spark of God, something ‘Gentiles’ do not have.[27] The reality is, however, while the laws given to Noah are for all of his seed, what is referred to as the Noachide laws are incorrectly ascribed to Noah as they are not the commandments given to him by God. Rather the Noachide laws are a Rabbinic construct, grounded within Talmudic Kabbalistic Judaism.

Thirdly, the concept of there being two sets of laws; one for the Jewish people and one for the ‘Gentiles’ is not biblical.

We read in Exodus 12:48-50 (NIV) which states:

“A foreigner residing among you who wants to celebrate the Lord’s Passover must have all the males in his household circumcised; then he may take part like one born in the land. No uncircumcised male may eat it. 49 The same law applies both to the native-born and to the foreigner residing among you.”

50 All the Israelites did just what the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

We read here how YHVH instructs that there is to be no difference between native-born and the foreigner who dwells with Israel, for the same law applies to both groups regarding eating of the Passover sacrifice. Here it clearly states that there is one set of rules. Thus, there is no distinction between the two.

We further read in Leviticus 18:25-27 (NIV)

25 Even the land was defiled; so, I punished it for its sin, and the land vomited out its inhabitants. 26 But you must keep my decrees and my laws. The native-born and the foreigners residing among you must not do any of these detestable things, 27 for all these things were done by the people who lived in the land before you, and the land became defiled.

Again, we see how there is one set of commandments for both native-born and the foreigner who dwells with Israel, the ‘Gentile.’ Leviticus 18 outlines many sexual sins which YHVH detests and admonishes Israel to avoid. The chapter commences by stating:

The LORD said to Moses, “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘I am the LORD your God. You must not do as they do in Egypt, where you used to live, and you must not do as they do in the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you. Do not follow their practices. You must obey my laws and be careful to follow my decrees. I am the LORD your God. Keep my decrees and laws, for the person who obeys them will live by them. I am the LORD. Genesis 18:1-5

While it could be argued that this is where the Rabbis get law four from, they do not reference this as the source, rather Genesis 9. Furthermore, this instruction was given to Moses and not Noah. Thus, what we see again is God declaring there to be one set of laws for both groups of people. Both native-born and those who walk with Israel are to follow the same commandments.

Again, in Leviticus 24:21-23 (NIV), we read:

Whoever kills an animal must make restitution, but whoever kills a human being is to be put to death. 22 You are to have the same law for the foreigner and the native-born. I am the Lord your God.’”

23 Then Moses spoke to the Israelites, and they took the blasphemer outside the camp and stoned him. The Israelites did as the Lord commanded Moses.

While this commandment can be seen in what God instructed Noah, it is clear again that God clearly states, there is to be no difference between Israel and those who walk with them. That both groups are to observe all the commandments God gave to Israel without showing any partiality.

Numbers 15:13-16 (NIV)

“‘Everyone who is native-born must do these things in this way when they present a food offering as an aroma pleasing to the Lord. 14 For the generations to come, whenever a foreigner or anyone else living among you presents a food offering as an aroma pleasing to the Lord, they must do exactly as you do. 15 The community is to have the same rules for you and for the foreigner residing among you; this is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. You and the foreigner shall be the same before the Lord: 16 The same laws and regulations will apply both to you and to the foreigner residing among you.’

The passage in Numbers 15 pertains to bringing a sacrifice to YHVH by a Jew and a Gentile. Both must observe the same commandments.

Thus, while the Rabbis attribute the commandments to Noah, stating that there are two paths or sets of commandments, one for the Jewish people and one for the ‘Gentiles,’ these assertions cannot be validated within scripture, but rather contradict the word of God. This clearly shows the claims of the Rabbis to be false and reveals the antichrist spirit behind the Noachide laws, laws which require the death penalty for contravening them.[28] Furthermore, while similarities between the commandments are evident, the very fact that there are discrepancies, infers that God changes, scripture informs us on the contrary. God does not show partiality between persons. Thus, further supporting the truth that these are not biblical laws but traditional laws of Judaism, traditions Messiah and the disciples stood against.

Regarding other religions, The UK Noachide Association states:

‘All authentic Noachides completely reject all other religions as false and accept the Jewish faith (with its duel covenants for Jews and non-Jews) as being the only true faith.’[29]

The UK Noachide Association lists websites that outline why Judaism does not accept the premise of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism. Arguing that there is only one true religion, that being Judaism,‘Gentiles’ do not need to covert or embrace Judaism; all they need to do to be righteous is to observe the seven Noachide commandments.

Conversion to Judaism is not necessary, as a Gentile that observes the Seven Noachide Commandments, because they were commanded by G-d, automatically receives a place in ‘Heaven’ (the world to come), according to the Talmud and Maimonides code of law ‘Mishneh Torah.’[30]

Our mission is to provide the highest quality resources for religious education in the fundamentals, the details, the outlook, and the practical observance of the eternal Seven Noachide Commandments, which G-d gave through Noah. Collectively, these dimensions of Divine service for ‘Gentiles’ are known as the Noachide Code. We encourage the observance of the Seven Commandments among all ‘Gentiles’, and this Divine code is the true basis of a righteous and just society.[31]

Thus, our goal and our mission are that all humankind will be openly connected by their common moral responsibility to their Creator. This opportunity for unity promotes peace and harmony among all people with all doing their part to achieve the ultimate good: “the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of G-d as water covering the sea bed” (Isaiah 11:9). [32]

Studying the Torah as a Noachide

As a Noachide, it is forbidden to study the Torah in any depth, other than when it pertains directly to the Noachide laws according to rabbinical interpretation. Furthermore, while Noachides can read the Torah and the Tanakh, they are forbidden from applying the five levels of study. Noachides can only apply the first two levels of Kabbalah methodology. These concepts are evident within discussions posted on the asknoah website for Noachides.

Donny, a junior member on the asknoah.org website for Noachide laws, asked the following question:

I received an offer from a Torah Observant publishing company for a portion from the Schottenstein English Edition of the Talmud (Tractate Gittin 55b-56a) describing the interpersonal conflicts that led to the ruin of the Second Temple. Would this be permissible for a Noachide to read and study, especially for Tishah B’Av?[33]

Michael, the Academy director, responded to Donny’s questions stating:

Besides the books of the Hebrew Scriptures that are suggested for Noachides to read on Tishah B’Av [the Book of Lamentations (Eichah) and the Book of Job (Iyov)], you can read a reliable history book about the periods leading up to the destruction of the Temples…If a Noachide has previously studied the Talmud, he could consult with a reliable Orthodox Rabbi to find out if the study was done in the mode of “osek ba’Torah” [in-depth Torah study] in an area unrelated to the Noachide Code, in which case the Noachide would know that he should do a sincere repentance. Or he could repent in any case on the assumption that there might have been an infraction, and resolve to be more careful in the future[34]

We see here that Michael recommends that Donny, a gentile Noachide observer, read certain passages and resources to assist him. However, Michael instructs Donny to repent from any unlawful study of the Talmud that he might have previously done, as in-depth Torah study is forbidden to Noachide observers, unless it pertains directly to the Noachide commandments.

Michael, then goes on to quote from Part 1, Chapter 5, of “the Divine code,” Volume 1, by Rabbi Moshe Weiner, stating:

… when a Gentile learns a part of Torah for the purpose of observing a Noachide commandment, he receives a reward, in addition to the reward for observing the Seven Noachide Commandments themselves. And even more so, since his learning Torah about the seven commandments is connected to the particular commandment that it relates to, the learning is a fulfilment of a directive from G-d. Therefore, learning about the Seven Noachide Commandments is called a permissible “involvement” in Torah study, and the reward for this learning and involvement in Torah is great.
In brief …:
a) Learning Torah “for its own sake” … is the aspect of Torah that is a betrothal and inheritance from G-d to the Jews alone, and is forbidden for Gentiles.[35]

We see here that it is clearly prohibited for a ‘Gentile’ Noachide observer to study the Torah other than that which pertains to the Noachide laws. Furthermore, it infers that it is the Jewish people who are the Bride of God and not the ‘Gentiles’. This very concept departs from what the re-Newed Covenant written in Jeremiah 31:31-34 states. A covenant which is between YHVH, the House of Judah and the House of Israel, especially as the House of Israel was given a bill of divorce by YHVH, which in doing so made the entire House of Israel ‘Gentiles’. The biblical understanding of ‘Gentile’ means out of covenant with YHVH. Thus, when YHVH through the prophet Jeremiah declared that He would make a re-Newed Covenant between Himself, the House of Judah and the House of Israel, He was indeed declaring that they would no longer be ‘Gentiles’ but in covenant with Him, thus, betrothing both Houses unto himself. For the re-Newed Covenant, is a marriage covenant, just as the first covenant made at Mt Sinai was. Therefore, to declare that only the Jews enter into a marriage contract with YHVH, one that excludes ‘Gentiles’ from entering into it, is unbiblical.

 Further clarification on studying the Torah as a Noachide is found in the question of another junior member – C. J. Tibbits. He asks:

I am reading the book, ‘The Path of The Righteous Gentile’ and in chapter four it states that “the Noachite who studies portions of the Torah that do not pertain to him damages his soul.” Can you please explain to me how he damages it and why? And what are they? Thank you.[36]

This question raised by C.J. Tibbits, reveals that not only are ‘Gentiles’ not permitted to study the deep meanings of the Tanakh but to do so has eternal consequences, as according to the Talmud/Rabbis it damages the Noachide’s soul. Yet, while Tibbits seeks clarification on this point, no clarification is given by Michael.

Michael, answering a question posed by another junior member on studying the Tanakh, states:

The majority opinion about this is cited by Rabbi Moshe Weiner in “The Divine Code”, Part I, Chapter 5 (Torah Study for Gentiles), topic 3 (p. 89, in bold text):

“It is permissible for a Gentile to read the [entire] twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible (“Tanach”), even with traditional explanations of the simple meaning (like the explanations by Rashi), in order to correctly understand the verses.”

In order to be sure that the translation in the Tanach he is using is reliable, the Gentile should use a Tanach translation that is published by a reliable, expert, Orthodox Jewish publishing company. (Note that the entire Tanach with the explanations by Rashi is on-line in English on Chabad.org.)[37]

Here Michael outlines that it is permissible for a Noachide observer to read the Tanakh citing Rabbi Weiner; it is not permissible for them to study it other than the parts that pertain to the Noachide commandments. [38]

Thus, what we find from examining the UK Noachide Association is that Noachides are second class citizens who are only permitted to study certain aspects of the Tanakh. This ruling for the Noachide has eternal detrimental consequences to their soul.

The Noachide High Council and the UN

Part of seeking to establish a global Noachide religion, requires the establishment of a court system that would oversee the observance of the laws. The Temple Institute reported on the 29th September 2005 that the newley formed Sanhedrin will select and ordain non-Jewish leaders who will sit on the Noachide High World Council, a council which the Sanhedrin is establishing in January 2006 to oversee the judicial system of the Noachide courts.[39]

Rabbi Michael Bar-Ron, a member and spokesman for the Sanhedrin, who was sent by the Sanhedrin to the United States, organised a conference in California during which six leaders were chosen to sit on the High Council. [40] The Temple Institute states regarding the Noachide Laws and High Council:

The purpose of the council, which was the brainchild of Rabbi Avraham Toledano, is to assist the B’nei Noach in their struggle to observe the word of G-d. “The goal is to unify, serve and organize all kosher B’nei Noach communities of the world under a single body that can operate under the direct authority and supervision of the Sanhedrin,” the decision to establish the body reads. “To form a vessel through which the Torah, from Zion (via the Sanhedrin), can effectively serve non-Jewish communities around the world.”[41]

While such endeavours sound admirable, what most people/Christians do not comprehend when they send monies to support organisations such as the Temple Institute, an organisation seeking to rebuild the third Temple, is that this group, along with others of like ilk, is seeking to establish the Noachide laws, which will condemn believers in Messiah to death. The penalty for breaking these laws is death by decapitation. [42] One of the key roles of the Noachide High Council is to oversee the enforcement of the Noachide laws and the establishment and oversight of the system/courts of Justice in accordance with the seventh law. [43]

A third goal of the creation of the High Council and the Sanhedrin’s efforts in regard to the Noachide community, is to “transform the Noachide movement from a religious phenomenon – a curiosity many have not heard of – into a powerful international movement that can successfully compete with, and with G-d’s help bring about the fall of, any religious movement but the pure authentic faith that was given to humanity through Noach, the father of us all,” said emissary Bar-Ron.[44]

There is a move for a global High Council to be established in Jerusalem that would represent the Seventy Nations of the world, according to Noah. This council would govern world affairs similar to those of the United Nations.

All the prospective members of the High Council are obligated to appear in Jerusalem this coming January, at which time they will be ordained by the Sanhedrin as members of the High Council. “One of the things I thought would be more difficult was implementing the fact that the Sanhedrin’s steering committee unanimously voted that the High Council members must appear personally before the Sanhedrin to be ordained as such,” Bar-Ron said. “But the level of commitment of these people is so high that it is not posing a problem at all. [45]

Watch unto prayer’ reported on how the Jerusalem Sanhedrin is preparing to enforce the Talmudic Noachide Laws. [46] Breaking Israel News reported on the 4th September 2018 stating, ‘Creation concert: Prophecy revealed as nations recognize Sanhedrin.’ [47] Approximately one thousand people attended the World Creation Concert at the base of the Temple Mount, an event that is being described as a key prophetic milestone. [48] 

However, what took place was not merely wonderful music accompanied by a spectacular light show: the event actually encapsulated several prophetic incidents taking place at once. In the not-so-distant future, the event may be identified as the moment a new, Biblically correct United Nations was established, potentially leading to a new era of global cooperation.[49]

We see in the above quote how the event is considered to be of prophetic importance, an event that heralded in the Noachide High Council for the 70 nations in Jerusalem. This notion is further evident in the comment made by Rabbi Hillel Weiss, who stated:

“The world is being threatened in so many ways — ecologically, atomic weapons, terrorism, economically…The United Nations has failed to unite the world in any effort to cope with these issues. That is because the UN is not based on Biblical principles that unite mankind. Human rights originated in the Bible, as did laws governing war. Ecology is a Biblical concept. When the nations came to Jerusalem to pray together in the Temple, they did so in recognition of the human principles that we all share. The United Nations rejected these human principles that bind and as such, has become a political battlefield that only makes these problems worse. They have appointed human rights violators to preside over the Human Rights Council. There is no justice in the International Court of Justice.”[50]

While what is being discussed regarding establishing world peace is commendable, Christian news agencies such as CBN have only praised this gathering as one of spreading worldwide peace. [51] However, the WND report of the event highlighted the Sanhedrin’s aspirations and fervent desire to establish a Bible-based international organisation based in Jerusalem that would replace the United Nations: it did not condemn the move.[52] Yet, while they assert this to be a Bible-based system, in reality, it is a Talmudic Kabbalistic based system.

During the concert, the representatives from the 70 Nations went onto the stage and signed an agreement with the Sanhedrin. By singing, the delegates were acknowledging their participation in seeking the establishing of the third Temple in Jerusalem as a house of prayer for all nations. [53]

Though it could be argued that the representatives of the nations who attended the ceremony did not agree with the desires to establish a Noachide High World Council organisation that will govern global affairs according to the Noachide laws – a world council that would replace the United Nations, the silence in not condemning such aspirations by the representatives of the nations speaks volumes and infers their support.

During the concert, prior to the declaration being signed, Rabbi Yoel Schwartz, president of the Sanhedrin’s court of the Noachides, was charged with preparing the declaration that would outline the spiritual bases for the organisation.[54] During the concert Rabbi Schwartz read out the Seven Noachide Laws stating:

These are the seven messages of the Creator of the world to humanity … Therefore, anyone who receives upon himself all these seven rules in front of a rabbinic court has a special status in Judaism. Even though they are not Jewish, they have entered into a full partnership in the service of God.[55]

While Judaism refers to them as Noachide Laws, commandments given by the Creator to humanity, the reality is that God did not give them to Noah.[56] Rather these laws are Rabbinical commandments that have their origin in the Talmud. Furthermore, as already shown, the penalty for failing to comply with these laws can be the death penalty.[57]
Rabbi Dov Stein, secretary of the Sanhedrin, outlined the need to replace the United Nations with a High World Council based in Jerusalem stating:

“We now live in an era when threats are global and not limited to one country. This is true of weapons, environmental issues, and even social issues. The solutions must come from a universal effort. The United Nations has failed in its mandate by rejecting God as the creator and the Noachide Laws common to all of mankind.”[58]


While many Christians are excited that the Sanhedrin is calling for a Global High Council based in Jerusalem and for the third Temple to be built, Christians fail to comprehend that this temple is not one dedicated to God but one in which the antichrist will enter and declare himself to be God. [59] Furthermore, the third temple will be a temple for all faiths, and for all people. This is why scripture states that even the elect will be deceived.[60] Moreover, Jesus stated that one would come in his own name and you will accept him, speaking of the Jewish people accepting the antichrist—[61] that the antichrist will not follow the commands of his forefathers but will worship another god.[62]He will also call for all of humanity to receive a mark on their forehead or their right hand, without which they will not be able to engage in economic transactions.[63]

Yet, while evangelicals get drunk upon their lust for all things Jewish and Israeli, they are being silently deceived into accepting the Noachide laws. These laws also call for those who adhere to them to be marked on their foreheads to identify them as a Noachide.[64] It is about time the Body of Messiah woke up and got serious with its faith and walk with God. Furthermore, could this be an event that brings down the judgment of God and why He repeatedly calls His people out of Babylon?[65] For Israel is referred to as Sodom and Gomorrah in scripture.[66] It is, therefore, my belief that Israel is mystery Babylon which causes the Christian nations to partake of her intoxicating wine. 

After representatives of the Sanhedrin had spoken, making reference to the Noachide laws and the need to replace the UN with a global Noachide High Council, the declaration was signed by the national leaders present.

The declaration stated:

 “The Sanhedrin – the council of 71 sages, in the courtyards of the holy Temple in Jerusalem, has called on 70 nations to pray to the Creator of the world on the 23rd of Elul, 5778, at the World Creation concert”                                                                                                                                                “The declaration of the nations that accompany the people of God: “We, as representatives of our nations, declare that according to the laws of Torah that God to Moses at Mount of Sinai, and according to the prophets of Israel and all the books of the Bible we wish to accompany the people of God, the people of Israel, to the place chosen by God, the Temple on Mount, Moriah, the place of binding the of Isaac.                                                                                                                                              “All this in order to serve only the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written:                                         “That my house will be and house of prayer shall be called to ALL peoples”                                                            We are all gathered together in the name of peace and love with  the people of Israel in the courtyards of the House of God as the sages of Israel and to fulfil the messianic vision of peace.                                                     God blessed Abraham by saying, “They that will bless you will be blessed”. We pray that by blessing Israel today, we, in turn, will be blessed. [67]

This gathering of the representatives of the nations and the signing of this declaration was seen by the Sanhedrin as the first step in establishing the global High council that would replace the UN.[68] Yet, while the world is crying out for peace, this can only be achieved when Messiah Yeshua returns. However, that view contravenes the Noachide laws, specifically the one regarding idolatry, for which the penalty is death. However, the reality is due to the toxic love affair between Christianity and Judaism, resulting in many departing from the Christian faith and rejecting the Messiah to embrace Naochidism. [69]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

What evangelical Christians are saying

Evangelical leaders are espousing, through their obsession with all things Jewish, the Rabbinical Noachide doctrine. Leaders such as Mark Biltz from El Shaddai Ministries in a teaching, states that these are the laws of God for humanity and are laws which we should follow and not listen to the calls condemning them, that those who oppose these laws are of an antichrist spirit, thus asserting that those who condemn these commandments are of antichrist.[70] Moreover, one only needs to look at the pro-Israel movement within evangelical churches to witness the obsession for Jewish paraphernalia. Little consideration is given to finding out whether such paraphernalia is kosher. Furthermore, Feldman in ‘the children of Noah’ observes how Christians are leaving the faith to become Noachides.[71] This is also evident in the number of former Christian ministers who have become Noachide leaders.[72]

Some argue that we do not need to be concerned about the Noachide laws, or the Jewish writings that state the penalty for not compliance is death; such penalties will never be enforced. While at present it could be argued we do not need to be concerned about such extreme punishments for not adhering to the Noachide laws, we should as Christians at the very least check our theology and prove ourselves to be good Bereans. We should also be aware of the times we live in and that prior to the return of Messiah there will be a Jewish antichrist who will be accepted by the world, and that he would seek to usher in world peace while enforcing a political and religious system. This system will enforce a mark on the forehead or right hand of all humanity. For those who fail to comply or stand in opposition to this system will be beheaded, and or interned and tortured for no more than ten days. It is not inconceivable to see the emergence of such a system through rabbinical Judaism. The Rabbis of old after all persecuted and killed believers in Christ. This in no way infers that Jews are evil, I am only highlighting the historical fact.

Within the Kabbalistic writings, we find that there is the pursuit that seeks to establish a global governmental system, a system ruled by their messiah, a messiah that is not the one of scripture but one of Talmud and Kabbalah.[73] This messiah is vastly different from the biblical Messiah, Yeshua. However, it is not my intention to go into this. Personal study will show that this messiah is more like the antichrist of scripture. Bible prophecy is being fulfilled at an accelerated rate. As Christians, we MUST show wisdom and discernment to avoid deception, especially as we are expecting the antichrist to be revealed shortly.

The Beast System

Rabbinic writings express how technology will assist in the implementation of the Messianic era, an era that will see all the earth worshipping God through the implementation of the Noachide laws, ushering a period of world peace. Noachides will receive a mark on their forehead, identifying them as righteous, similar to the mark inscribed upon the tefillin, which is the mark of HaShem.[74] One should hear alarms rings on further study.

Rabbi Zamir Cohen, chairman of Hidabroot, the world’s largest Jewish TV network states:

I will briefly say that it possesses a big secret. When we look at the background, not the bulge, but rather , the background, we have a “vav”, another “vav”, another “vav”, meaning, inside these four heads we have 3 “vavs” and 3 heads, and when you take the line in the background that’s on the bottom, you have an internal Shin, that’s basically concealed inside the four headed Shin.[75]

Here we see that the hidden mystery contained within the name of HaShem on the tefillin is that of the number 666, which the Rabbis consider to be a holy number that speaks of the Messianic age. It is this mark, the mark of HaShem, that will be placed on the Noachides, proclaiming them to be righteous according to the Noachide rabbinical Kabbalistic commandments.

 Though many Christians are seeking to emulate Jewish practices and customs, as they believe we worship the same God, and while this is true of Biblical Hebraic faith, the reality is that at the heart of rabbinic Judaism is the belief that the serpent of Genesis will return as divine. For within Rabbinic Judaism, the serpent is not evil at all but good and is according to Judaism linked to their messiah, a messiah not according to scripture, but according to Babylonian Kabbalah. Furthermore, it is from Judah’s exile in Babylon that they acquired much of their Kabbalistic rabbinic doctrines and not from scripture. Fundamentally, what on the surface seems innocent and good, is, in reality, occultic mysticism of the antichrist. The Noachide doctrine seeks to seduce humanity as creation enters its final phase, before the return of the true Messiah (Jesus/Yeshua’s) —just as the serpent did to Adam and Eve in the garden.

Conclusion

In my effort to keep this article on a very complex topic brief, I would emphasise that I have only scraped the surface. I have been aware of the Noachide laws for in excess of twenty years, but have come to realise that I have not fully conceptualised the eschatological significance of this occultic doctrine. However, over the past few years, I have witnessed its growing fervent quest to enslave humanity. I praise YHVH for the fact that He is waking people up concerning the truth. However, the sad reality is due to the deeply engrained veneration and idolatry of the Jewish people and Israel within large parts of the evangelical church; it rejects any criticism of Judaism, Israel and the Noachide laws. What is more alarming is that Kabbalistic doctrines have in parts seeped in and gained prominence within the Hebrew Roots/Messianic movement. For in their zeal for truth and the fervent desire to audit their theology, they have embraced all things Jewish. This has led to many embracing the Noachide deception, with many of the leaders within this Kabbalistic movement being former Christian leaders who have rejected Jesus as the Messiah.

Yet, as I stated in the introduction, there are contained within Rabbinic writings much biblical truth; however, this truth requires sifting from the unbiblical traditions of the Rabbis. I, therefore, urge people to seek those who understand Jewish writings to do this for them. For this very reason, I encourage people to rely solely on scripture and the guidance of the Holy Spirit, while applying a four-layered hermeneutical methodology as explained within the introduction. I also caution people not to reject everything they have been taught or learnt from Judaism, but rather to apply wisdom when auditing their theology gained from both the Rabbis and the mainstream Christian church.

The knowledge gained form the Noachide doctrine along with Kabbalist Rabbinical thought is the knowledge gained from the tree of good and evil. This is evident within the very symbol of Kabbalah, the tree of Good and Evil, the very tree the serpent tempted Adam and Eve to eat from. During this final phase of the redemptive process, we witness once again the serpent of Kabbalah, the spirit of antichrist seeking to entice the people of God to consume forbidden knowledge. This is why we MUST not eat from this tree, the tree of Kabbalah for even Messiah warned of consuming the leaven of the Pharisees.[76]

I pray that this article has given you much to think about. I know that while writing it, I had to seek the LORD regarding anything I might have absorbed through an unconscious osmosis during my studies. Thus, let us continue to seek to walk humbly before God as we test all things against His word.


[1] Jeremiah 16:9 O LORD, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit

[2] Paul in 2 Corinthians 11:3-4, 13-14 urges the church in Corinth not to be beguiled by the deceit of a false gospel which Paul writes to the Church in Galatia stating let those who proclaim another gospel be cursed Galatians 1:8. Messiah Himself stated (Mark 7:7-8,13) regarding the Pharisees that they proclaim the doctrines of men as coming from God but in doing so make void the word of God. This is what the Rabbis, the Pharisees of today, are doing. Messiah warned of the leaven of the Pharisees Matthew 16:6, 12.

[3] Mark 7:7-8,13; Matthew 16:6,12

[4] The majority of Noachide leaders used to be Church ministers/Pastors as evident in the information on wikiNoah.   Wiki Noah (2016) Leaders [available from] https://web.archive.org/web/20160327020153/http://en.wikinoah.org/index.php?title=Leaders [accessed 17th May 2019].  Rachel Feldman (2018) Field Notes – The Children of Noah; Has Messianic Zionism Created a New World Religion? The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions,  22(1), pp. 115-128. Fieldman outlines how Christians are abandoning Christianity and embracing Noachide Judaism.

[5] DeAnne Loper, Kabbalah Secrets Christians Need to Know (USA, Middletown: Independently published, 2019).

[6] Studying Theology (Judaism and Christianity) at both undergraduate and post graduate levels and in my personal studies.

[7]  Loper,  pp. 15-20.

[8] It is my belief that all a person needs to study the bible is 2-3 translations of a bible, a good concordance and a Hebrew/Greek lexicon. These are all a person needs. Furthermore, if one reads extra biblical texts such as Enoch, Maccabees, Jewish writings and Christian writings, they are not treated the same as scripture. Furthermore, they are to be understood through the lens of scripture and not the other way round.

[9] Proverbs 25:2 (KJV) It is the glory of God to conceal a thing, but the honour of kings is to search out a matter.

[10] Michel Laurigan, ‘The Law of Noah: One World Religion?’, in Fisheaters (2019) https://www.fisheaters.com/lawofnoah.html [Accessed 17th May 2019].

[11] Ibid.

[12] Chabad, ‘Education and Sharing Day U.S.A’, in Chabad  (Chabad, 2019)https://www.chabad.org/therebbe/article_cdo/aid/1167628/jewish/Education-and-Sharing-Day-USA.htm [Accessed 17th May 2019]. Dovid Zaklikowski, ‘Education Lessons from President Reagan’s Speech’, in Chabad Lubavitch (Washington, DC: Chabad, 2015) http://lubavitch.com/news/article/2036951/Education-Lessons-from-President-Reagan-s-Speech.html [Accessed 17th May 2019].

[13] US Congress, ‘H.J.Res.104 – To designate March 26, 1991, as Education Day, U.S.A.’ ([USA]: US Congress, 1991) https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-joint-resolution/104/text [Accessed 17th May 2019].

[14] Loper, pp. 53.

The Encyclopaedia Judaica, article on Noachide Laws, p. 1191.

Sanh. 47a; Yad, Melakhim 9.14

David Sheen ‘Temple movement rabbi proselytizes for genocide’ in Electronic Intifada (Chicago: Electronic Intifada, 2015) https://electronicintifada.net/content/video-temple-movement-rabbi-proselytizes-genocide/14870 [Accessed 15th May 2019].

[15]Rozina Sabur, ‘Alabama bans abortion with strictest legislation in US’. The Independent, 15th May 2019.  https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/05/15/alabama-bans-abortion-strictest-legislation-us/ [Accessed 17th May 2019].

[16] Jessica Glenza, ‘Which states are seeking to make abortion illegal and who is behind it?’ The Guardian, 14th May 2019.  https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/may/14/abortion-ban-legislation-alabama-will-it-pass [accessed 17th May 2019].

[17]The Noachide Association of Great Britain 2003-2019, ‘These are the Seven commandments that the descendants of Noah are commanded’ in The Noachide Association of Great Britain (London: 2019)http://www.noachide.org.uk/7-Laws/7-laws.html#1 [Accessed 11th May 2019].  

[18] Israeli News Live, ‘The Identity Of The New World Religion Revealed; S&J Chat’, online video recording, Youtube, 15th May 2019.  [Available from] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Rd2etCikdg [Accessed 15th May 2019].

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] The Noachide Association of Great Britain. 2003-2019 , ‘on other faiths’,  in The Noachide Association of Great Britain (London: 2019) http://www.noachide.org.uk/Mashiach/Our-Faith/Other-faiths/other-faiths.html [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[23] The Noachide Association of Great Britain 2003-2019, ‘These are the Seven commandments that the descendants of Noah are commanded’ in The Noachide Association of Great Britain (London, 2019)http://www.noachide.org.uk/ [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[24] Ibid.

[25]Ibid.

[26] Loper (2019)

[27] Loper states regarding Kabbalah that, Jewish people have the divine spark, for they along are made of five parts whereas all other nations ‘Gentiles’ consist of just three, like the animals. The nations, ‘Gentiles’ are thus servants of the Jews during the Messianic period. Yet, all ‘Gentiles’ must adhere to the seven Noachide laws; failure to do so results in beheading according to Talmudic law.

[28] Loper, p. 53.

The Encyclopaedia Judaica, article on Noachide Laws, p. 1191.

Sanh. 47a; Yad, Melakhim 9.14

David Sheen ‘Temple movement rabbi proselytizes for genocide’ in Electronic Intifada (Chicago: Electronic Intifada, 2015) https://electronicintifada.net/content/video-temple-movement-rabbi-proselytizes-genocide/14870 [Accessed 15th May 2019].

[29] The Noachide Association of Great Britain 2003-2019, ‘Other Religions’ in The Noachide Association of Great Britain (London: 2019)

http://www.noachide.org.uk/Mashiach/Our-Faith/Other-faiths/other-faiths.html [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[30] The Noachide Association of Great Britain (2019) [Available from] http://www.noachide.org.uk/Site-Map/Conversion/conversion.html [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[31] Ask Noah (2019) About Us, our Mission [Available from] https://asknoah.org/about-us/our-mission [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ask Noah, ‘Prohibition of In-Depth Torah Study Not Related to Noachide Code’ in Ask Noah (Ask Noah, 2019) http://www.asknoah.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=1926 [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ask Noah, ‘Prohibition of In-Depth Torah Study Not Related to Noachide Code’ in Ask Noah (Ask Noah, 2019)

http://www.asknoah.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=1926 [Accessed 10th May 2019]. 

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ask Noah, ‘Prohibition of In-Depth Torah Study Not Related to Noachide Code’ in Ask Noah (Ask Noah, 2019) http://www.asknoah.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=1926&page=2 [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[38] Ibid. and responses given to question relating to studying the Torah as a Noachide.  Noachide Torah Study [Available from] http://www.asknoah.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=13 [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[39] The Temple Institute, ‘Sanhedrin moves to establish council for Noachides’, in The Temple Institute (Israel: Temple Institute, 2005)  http://www.templeinstitute.org/archive/28-09-05-s.htm [Accessed 11th May 2019]. 

[40] Ibid.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Sanhedrin 57a [Accessed from] https://www.sefaria.org/Sanhedrin.57a?lang=bi [on 7th April 2019]

[43] The Noachide Association of Great Britain 2003-2019, ‘These are the Seven commandments that the descendants of Noah are commanded’ in The Noachide Association of Great Britain (London:  2019) http://www.noachide.org.uk/7-Laws/7-laws.html#1 [Accessed 10th May 2019].

[44] The Temple Institute, ‘Sanhedrin moves to establish council for Noachides’, in The Temple Institute (Israel: Temple Institute, 2005)  http://www.templeinstitute.org/archive/28-09-05-s.htm [Accessed 11th May 2019]. 

[45] HaLevi,  ‘Sandedrin Moves to Establish Council for Noachides’, in Israel National News, (Israel: Israel National News, 28th September 2005) http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/90646 [Accessed 11th May 2019].

[46] Watch unto prayer, ‘The Jerusalem Sanhedrin Prepares to enforce the Talmudic Noachide Laws’, in Watch unto prayer, (Watch unto prayer, [n.d]) https://watch-unto-prayer.org/eretz-israel-last-trump-Noachide-laws.html [Accessed on 11th May 2019]. (no date)

The Creation concert can be watched by visiting www.worldcreationconcert.com

[47] Adam Eliyahu Berkowitz, ‘Creation Concert: Prophecy revealed as nations recognize Sanhedrin’, in Breaking Israel News, (Israel: Breaking Israel News, 4th September 2018)  https://www.breakingisraelnews.com/113430/prophecy-nations-recognize-sanhedrin/ [Accessed 11th May 2019].

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid.

[50] Ibid.

[51] Chris Mitchell, ‘Creation concert organizers hope to spread a message of peace worldwide’, in CBN News (USA: CBN News, 21st September 2018) https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2018/september/creation-concert-organizers-hope-to-spread-a-message-of-peace-worldwide [Accessed 11th May 2019].

[52] WND, ‘7 Days until dedication of 3rd temple altar’, in WND, (WND, 2nd December 2018) https://www.wnd.com/2018/12/7-days-until-dedication-of-3rd-temple-altar/ [Accessed 11th May 2019].

[53] Adam Eliyahu Berkowitz, ‘Creation Concert: Prophecy revealed as nations recognize Sanhedrin’, in Breaking Israel News, (Israel: Breaking Israel News, 4th September 2-18)  https://www.breakingisraelnews.com/113430/prophecy-nations-recognize-sanhedrin/ [Accessed 11th May 2019].

[54] WND, 2nd December 2018

[55] Ibid.

[56] Ibid.

[57] Sanhedrin 57a https://www.sefaria.org/Sanhedrin.57a?lang=bi [on 7th April 2019]

[58] WND, 2nd December 2018

[59] 2 Thessalonians 2: 4 He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God.

[60] Matthew 24:24 (NIV) For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect.

[61] John 5:43 (AKJV) I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.

[62] Daniel 11:37 (KJV) Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

[63] Revelation 13:16-17

[64] Israeli News Live, ‘Zohar and the Kosher Pig with Deanne Loper’, online video recording, Youtube, 15th May 2019.  [Available from]

Israeli News Live (1st May 2019) Kabbalah,. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBtHdTaFeL0 [Accessed 2nd May 2019].

[65] Revelation 8:14; Jeremiah 51:45

[66] Revelation 11:8

[67] WND, 2nd December 2018) 7

[68] Ibid.

[69] Wiki noah, ‘The majority of Noachide leaders used to be Church ministers/Pastors as evident in the information’ in  wikiNoah, (WikiNoah, 2016) https://web.archive.org/web/20160327020153/http://en.wikinoah.org/index.php?title=Leaders [accessed 17th May 2019].  Rachel Feldman, ‘Field Notes – The Children of Noah; Has Messianic Zionism Created a New World Religion?’ The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 1(2018), pp. 115-128. Fieldman outlines how Christians are abandoning Christianity and embracing Noachide Judaism.

[70] El Shaddai Ministries, ‘Pastor Mark’s commentary on the Noachide laws’, online video recording, YouTube, 30th March 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSXM9fq7f3I&t=342s [Accessed 10th May 2019].   

[71] Feldman.

[72] Wiki Noah, ‘Leaders’, wikiNoah, (WikiNoah, 2016) https://web.archive.org/web/20160327020153/http://en.wikinoah.org/index.php?title=Leaders [accessed 17th May 2019].  

[73] Loper

[74] HaShem is what rabbis use instead the name of God, it means ‘the name’.

[75] Hidabroot Torah & Judaism, ‘Tefillin: What is Their Meaning and How Do We Wear Them? – Rabbi Zamir Cohen’ online video recording, Youtube, 30th October 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SvZ-oz4nm5M [Accessed 17th May 2019).

[76] Matthew 16:6 sdlocked0 Med

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